If compared with the needs of the community will be a buffalo in the present, the needs in the past might not be much different than for consumption, as animal sacrifice, helped cultivate agriculture, as well as a means of transportation. Megalit punden establishment of the railroad was accompanied of course in traditional ceremonies, particularly in the ceremony of death, if associated with the presence of the grave stone.
Viewing habits that lasted until now, probably in the traditional ceremonies are also using the buffalo as the animal sacrifice. Meanwhile, as a means of transportation, water buffalo used to carry agricultural products.
Buffalo, drive the agricultural revolution
EXPECTED, before the entry of Hindu-Buddhist influence (century XI – XIV AD), agricultural activities are carried out community. Then with the introduction of technology (plow), agriculture was growing. Possibility of development of agricultural technology proven by the tradition of land without using a plow on the part of Batak society, and the use of simpler tools of human-driven, such as plow wheel and wooden comb
Tradition of land without using plows were conducted until now by most people in Barus and South Tapanuli, with a buffalo herd (approximately 8 to 12 tail) around the rice field repeatedly. The number of buffalo that used describe the size of populations of buffalo breeding by a single nuclear family there.
Although not many paddy fields cultivated in Samosir, the Toba Batak sub-ethnic community, which raised buffalo population enough. This is due to the many needs of the buffalo as the animal sacrifice rituals that accompany people organized.
For people who are still alive with traditions such as megalithic Toraja, Sumba, Ngaju Dayak and Batak, the buffalo is an animal that is often sacrificed in traditional ceremonies such as rites of death (solo sign ‘, Marapu, tiwah, matua and mangokal Saur Holi), or custom home construction. The number of buffalo slaughtered at a traditional ceremony, described the family’s ability or high social status in society. It is symbolically reflected in the number of buffalo horn on display at the customs house.
On Batak society known as saurmatua funeral ceremony, and mangokal Holi (dig the bones), bone removed from the primary graves to secondary graves. Part of these ceremonies are usually held the customary showers accompanied by cutting buffalo. Before slaughter, the buffalo was tied to the pole, called borotan, and accompanied by dance tor-tor. Then, after the buffalo are slaughtered meat is distributed to relatives who followed the ceremony, a jambar juhut
Similarly the marriage ceremony, horja anesthesia (show respect for ancestors), and the establishment of customs houses. Buffalo also slaughtered; other than as animal sacrifice, as well as the complementary portion in the distribution of indigenous
In division division jambarjuhut (animal sacrifice) there are certain rules called ruhut papangan namely:
- Head (ulu) and 3 for the king osang customary
- Neck (rungkung or calendar) to the boru
- Thighs and legs (soit) for the dongan sabutuha
- The back and ribs (panamboli) & Somba, Somba to the hula-hula
- The back (ihur-ihur) for the hasuhuton.
The existence of rules giving special treatment to the king in the Batak society, explaining the presence of buffalo horn as ornaments in traditional houses. Special treatment for indigenous leaders for the provision of the sacrificial animal’s head, especially buffalo, was also found in the Toraja people.
Meaning is sacred and the profane
Buffalo ornaments Batak society is a symbol that has sacred and profane nature. Sacred nature known through the remains of buffalo ornaments related megalithic stone graves, is a symbol of vehicles (vehicle) for the spirits to the spirit world. Buffalo ornaments also symbolize fertility associated with public life megalithic livelihood support in agriculture.
Until now buffalo buffalo is still used as sacrificial animals on the events of sacred worth of Batak society, namely matua Saur ceremony, and mangokal Holi.
While the meaning of the buffalo are drawn from the secular society’s view that the buffalo is the animal sacrifice which has the highest value compared to other animals such as pigs. This is relevant to the standards that apply to some tribes, in which the quantity of buffalo horn fixed to the custom house symbolizes the high social status (prestige) and power / leadership owner.
Used as an ornament in custom homes, especially traditional Batak house; have similar view, which is mystically associated with the symbol of the safety guards from evil spirits, and symbols of leadership such as fortitude / courage.